Bradycardia causes associated with heart disorders:
- Myocardial infarction (heart attack), which is accompanied by the atrophy of a part of the cardiac muscle;
- Atherosclerosis – artery wall thickening resulting from the accumulation of calcium and fatty materials such as cholesterol and triglyceride. The thickening narrows the vessel passageway which leads to various circulatory disturbances;
- Sclerotic (scaring) changes in the heart muscle, as a result of cardiac inflammatory processes or myocardial infarction. It is particularly dangerous if scaring affects the sinus node;
- Inflammatory heart diseases – myocarditis and endocarditis.
Bradycardia causes not associated with heart disorders:
- Hypothyroidism or decrease in thyroid gland function. This condition provokes decrease in metabolism and almost always leads to the slowing of the heart rate;
- Toxins. Bradycardia may be associated with infectious-toxic influence exerted on the body and may accompany such conditions as typhoid fever, flu, and diphtheria. Jaundice bradycardia is associated with the influence of bile acids. Also, the risk of developing bradycardia appears in cases of lead and nicotine poisoning;
- Overdose of beta-blocker drugs, and their overall influence;
- Autonomic nervous system disorders – blood pressure and heart problems, trouble breathing and swallowing;
- Increased sensitivity or irritation of the vagus nerve;
- Elevated intracranial pressure;
- Acute kidney inflammation (nephritises);
- Biliary, intestinal or renal colic;
- Increased blood calcium and potassium levels;
- Decrease in body temperature resulting from exposure to cold;
Next chapter: Bradycardia symptoms
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